The study of color in all its forms is sometimes referred to as chromatics. Color is an artifact of our brains interpretation of light waves through the eye. There are plenty of interesting issues and problems about how we have thought about color through the ages.
From additive to subtractive methods, color is an important part of our existence and survival.
HLS World Map
There are several algorithms out there to programatically generate a color from text, but this takes it one step further and generates a color based on a physical location.